Monthly Archives: December 2014

PolySciTech Year End In Review: Final Post of 2014.

This is the last post for PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) in 2014 as we will be closing down until January 5th. Notable to the year 2014 have been the 20 publications which came out this year utilizing PolySciTech research products which is the highest number to date. As you enjoy your holiday break and contemplate your research plans for next year please peruse some of the following papers for inspiration. Happy Holidays:

“A Far-Red Light Activatable, Multi-Functional Prodrug for Fluorescence Optical Imaging and Combinational Treatment” (http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jm5000722); “Thermosensitive poly-(d, l-lactide-co-glycolide)-block-poly (ethylene glycol)-block-poly-(d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) hydrogels for multi-drug delivery” (http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/1061186X.2014.931406); “Fabrication of MnFe< sub> 2 O< sub> 4-CuInS< sub> 2/ZnS Magnetofluorescent Nanocomposites and Their Characterization” (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0927775714007870); “Conjugation of Anti-HER2 Monoclonal Antibody onto a PLGA-PEG Nanoparticle Using CuAAC Click Chemistry” (http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=ucin1352485398); “Targeted Approach for Prostate Cancer Treatment: Synthesis and Characterization of Docetaxel-Loaded Perfluorocarbon Nanodroplets.” (http://www.annexpublishers.com/articles/JCSCO/volume-1-Issue-1/Targeted-Approach-for-Prostate-Cancer-Treatment-Synthesis-and-Characterization-of-Docetaxel-Loaded-Perfluorocarbon-Nanodroplets.pdf); “In vivo siRNA delivery system for targeting to the liver by poly-l-glutamic acid-coated lipoplex” (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211286314000025); “Triamcinolone acetonide nanoparticles incorporated in thermoreversible gels for age-related macular degeneration” (http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/10837450.2014.965326); “Resveratrol-loaded polymeric nanoparticles suppress glucose metabolism and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo” (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378517314008643); “Adaptive Functional Diversification of Lysozyme in Insectivorous Bats” (http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/08/18/molbev.msu240.short); “Toxicologie pulmonaire de nanoparticules biod´egradables : effets cytotoxiques et inflammatoires sur cellules ´epith´eliales et macrophages” (https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/01/01/66/97/PDF/VD2_GRABOWSKI_NADEGE_13122013.pdf); “A new nanostructured carrier design including oil to enhance the pharmaceutical properties of retinoid therapy and its therapeutic effects on chemo-resistant ovarian cancer” (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0939641114001313); “Development of poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles-embedded hyaluronic acid–ceramide-based nanostructure for tumor-targeted drug delivery” (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378517314005377); “Haloperidol-loaded intranasally administered lectin functionalized poly (ethylene glycol)–block-poly (d, l)-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PEG–PLGA) nanoparticles for the treatment of schizophrenia” (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0939641114000526); “Porous PLGA-CaSiO3 (Pseudowollastonite) Composite Scaffolds Optimized for Biocompatibility and Osteoinduction” (https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file?accession=akron1397041385&disposition=inline); “Using Multi-Detection GPC/SEC to Determine Impact of Sterilization on Medical-Grade Polymers” (http://www.chromatographyonline.com/lcgc/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=845744&sk=&date=&pageID=2); “Nanobody-Targeted and RNase-Loaded Nanoparticles Based on a Hydrophilic Polyester Aimed for Cancer Therapy” (http://dspace.library.uu.nl/bitstream/handle/1874/292552/samadi.pdf?sequence=2#page=117); “Nanoencapsulation of ABT-737 and camptothecin enhances their clinical potential through synergistic antitumor effects and reduction of systemic toxicity” (http://www.nature.com/cddis/journal/v5/n10/abs/cddis2014413a.html); “Evaluation of Structure-Property Relationships within Insect Cuticle to Identify Motifs for Biomaterial Design” (http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/bitstream/handle/1808/15781/Sprouse_ku_0099D_13409_DATA_1.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y); “Electrophoretic Deposition and Characterization of Biocomposites on Magnesium for Orthopedic Applications” (http://www.scientific.net/AMR.922.761); “Development of Injectable Citrate-Based Bioadhesive Bone Implants” (http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2014/tb/c4tb01498g).

PEG-PCL investigated for use in developing oral chemotherapy

PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) provides a wide array of PEG block copolymers and other specialty materials. One of the materials provided by PolySciTech is PEG-PCL. Recently these types of polymers were used as an oral delivery vehicle for docetaxel which may one day hold promise for oral chemotherapy of breast cancer. Read more: Wang, YuJun, LiJuan Chen, LiWei Tan, Qian Zhao, Feng Luo, YuQuan Wei, and ZhiYong Qian. “PEG–PCL based micelle hydrogels as oral docetaxel delivery systems for breast cancer therapy.” Biomaterials (2014). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142961214004979

“Abstract: In this study, a composite drug delivery system was developed and evaluated for oral delivery of docetaxel: docetaxel-loaded micelles in pH-responsive hydrogel (DTX-micelle–hydrogel). Docetaxel was successfully loaded in micelles with small particle size of 20 nm and high drug loading of 7.76%, which contributed to the drug absorption in the intestinal tract. The experiments of cytotoxicity on 4T1 cells demonstrated the effective antitumor activity of DTX micelles. Meanwhile, a pH-responsive hydrogel was synthesized and optimized for incorporating the docetaxel micelles. The pH-responsiveness and reversibility of the hydrogel were investigated under the pH conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, the DTX-micelle–hydrogel system showed much quicker diffusion of micelles in simulated intestinal fluid than in simulated gastric fluid, which was mainly caused by the change of pH value. The docetaxel released from the micelle–hydrogel system quite slowly, so it had little influence on the absorption of DTX micelles in small intestine. More important, the pharmacokinetic study revealed that the DTX-micelle–hydrogel significantly improved the oral bioavailability of docetaxel (75.6%) about 10 times compared to DTX micelles, and this increase in bioavailability was probably due to the small intestine targeting release of the pH-responsive hydrogel. Consequently, the oral DTX-micelle–hydrogel system was effective in inhibiting tumor growth in subcutaneous 4T1 breast cancer model, and decreased systemic toxicity compared with intravenous treatment. The apoptosis cells in the immunofluorescent studies and the proliferation-positive cells in the immunohistochemical studies were also consistent with the results. Therefore, the DTX-micelle–hydrogel system might be a promising candidate oral drug for breast cancer therapy. Keywords: Docetaxel; Oral delivery; Micelles; Hydrogel; Breast cancer”

PEG-PLA block polymers researched for use as delivery vehicle of noscapine as treatment of cancers

PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) provides a wide array of PEG-PLA block copolymers for research applications. Recently these types of polymers were investigated for use in delivery of poorly soluble noscapine and applied to determine optimal parameters for loading efficiency. Read more: Shalaby, Karim S., Mahmoud E. Soliman, Luca Casettari, Giulia Bonacucina, Marco Cespi, Giovanni F. Palmieri, Omaima A. Sammour, and Abdelhameed A. El Shamy. “Determination of factors controlling the particle size and entrapment efficiency of noscapine in PEG/PLA nanoparticles using artificial neural networks.” International journal of nanomedicine 9 (2014): 4953. Full text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4211908/

“Abstract: In this study, di- and triblock copolymers based on polyethylene glycol and polylactide were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization and characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography. Nanoparticles containing noscapine were prepared from these biodegradable and biocompatible copolymers using the nanoprecipitation method. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized for size and drug entrapment efficiency, and their morphology and size were checked by transmission electron microscopy imaging. Artificial neural networks were constructed and tested for their ability to predict particle size and entrapment efficiency of noscapine within the formed nanoparticles using different factors utilized in the preparation step, namely polymer molecular weight, ratio of polymer to drug, and number of blocks that make up the polymer. Using these networks, it was found that the polymer molecular weight has the greatest effect on particle size. On the other hand, polymer to drug ratio was found to be the most influential factor on drug entrapment efficiency. This study demonstrated the ability of artificial neural networks to predict not only the particle size of the formed nanoparticles but also the drug entrapment efficiency. This may have a great impact on the design of polyethylene glycol and polylactide-based copolymers, and can be used to customize the required target formulations. Keywords: noscapine, polyethylene glycol (PEG), polylactide (PLA), biodegradable nanoparticles, artificial neural networks (ANNs)”

PolySciTech mPEG-PLA (AK07) used for chemotherapeutic resveratrol delivery

Recently research has been published from Korea Samsung Research Institute using PolyVivo (AK07, www.polyscitech.com) to form nanoparticles for delivery of resveratrol, which suppresses cancer cell metabolism, as a chemotherapeutic medicine. Read more: Jung, Kyung-Ho, Jin Hee Lee, Jin Won Park, Cung Hoa Thien Quach, Seung-Hwan Moon, Young Seok Cho, and Kyung-Han Lee. “Resveratrol-loaded polymeric nanoparticles suppress glucose metabolism and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo.” International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2014). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378517314008643

“Abstract: Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural phenol with promising anti-tumor activities, but its use for in vivo cancer treatment is limited by low aqueous solubility and poor stability. In this study, we prepared RSV-loaded polyethylene glycol–polylactic acid (PEG–PLA; M.W. 5000-5000) polymer nanoparticles (NPs) for improved stability and controlled delivery, and investigated its metabolic and anti-tumor effect in vitro and in vivo. CT26 colon cancer cells displayed significantly reduced cell number to 5.6% and colony forming capacity to 6.3% of controls by 72 h treatment with 40 and 20 μM of RSV-NP, respectively. Flow cytometry and western blots demonstrated increased apoptotic cell death, and 18F FDG uptake and reactive oxygen species was significantly reduced by RSV-NP. All of these effects were comparable to or greater in potency compared to free RSV. When RSV-NP was intravenously administered to CT26 tumor bearing mice, there was a reduction of 18F FDG uptake on PET/CT by day 4. Longer treatment led to retardation of tumor growth accompanied by an improvement in survival compared to empty NP-injected controls. These results demonstrate that the in vitro and in vivo metabolic and anti-tumor effects of RSV is preserved by PEG–PLA NP loading, and provide an encouraging outlook on the potential of polymeric NPs as an effective method to deliver RSV for cancer therapy. Keywords: Resveratrol; PEG–PLA; Glucose metabolism; Anticancer effect”Jung, 2014 resveratrol cancer delivery peg-pla