Category Archives: Polymer News

Category is for the latest news coming out regarding novel uses of polymers in medicine and science.

PLGA from PolySciTech used as precursor for synthesis of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-g-poly-1-vinylpyrrolidin-2-one copolymers

PolySciTech Division of Akina, Inc. (www.polyscitech.com) provides a wide array of biodegradable block copolymers and polyesters such as poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA). Recently, researchers at Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali (INSTM) in Firenze, Italy have utilized PLGA from PolySciTech (Polyvivo AP059) as a chain transfer precursor for synthesizing a copolymer of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-g-poly-1-vinylpyrrolidin-2-one. The resultant polymer produced a highly stable dispersion in water indicating its potential application towards solubilizing poorly soluble materials or aiding in drug-delivery. Read more: Ranucci, Elisabetta, Giovanna Capuano, Amedea Manfredi, and Paolo Ferruti. “One‐step synthesis of poly (lactic‐co‐glycolic acid)‐g‐poly‐1‐vinylpyrrolidin‐2‐one copolymers.” Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry (2016). http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pola.28049/full

 

“ABSTRACT: The radical polymerization of 1-vinylpyrrolidin-2-one (NVP) in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) 50:50 at 100 °C leads to amphiphilic PLGA-g-PVP copolymers. Their composition is determined by FT-IR spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric analyses agree with FT-IR determinations. Saponification of the PLGA-g-PVP polyester portion allows isolating the PVP side chains and measuring their molecular weight, from which the average chain transfer constant (CT) of the PLGA units is estimated. The MALDI-TOF spectra of PVP reveal the presence at one chain end of residues of either glycolic acid- or lactic acid- or lactic/glycolic acid dimers, trimers and one tetramer, the other terminal being hydrogen. This unequivocally demonstrates that grafting occurred. Accordingly, the orthogonal solvent pair ethyl acetate—methanol, while separating the components of PLGA/PVP intimate mixtures, fails to separate pure PVP or PLGA from the reaction products. All PLGA-g-PVP and PLGA/PLGA-g-PVP blends, but not PLGA/PVP blends, give long-time stable dispersions in water. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2016”

Article from PolySciTech regarding polymer analysis

PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) provides a wide array of biodegradable polymers and related block copolymers. In addition to this, contract analysis is also offered for a variety of polymer-based and other samples. Recently our group has published a paper detailing methodology of polymer analysis post-formulation in parental products. Read more: Garner, John, Sarah Skidmore, Haesun Park, Kinam Park, Stephanie Choi, and Yan Wang. “A Protocol for Assay of Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) in Clinical Products.” International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2015). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378517315301605

“Abstract: Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) is the key component of long acting drug products responsible for providing sustained release in a controlled manner. The objective of the current study was to develop and validate an analytical protocol to determine key properties of PLGA used in commercial long-acting drug products. Procedures to isolate PLGA from commercial products have been established and the key properties of PLGA, such as polymer molecular weight, lactide:glycolide (L:G) ratio, and nature of polymer end-cap, have been determined. Identification of the polymer end-cap was confirmed by using two PLGA polymers with acid and ester end-caps. Trelstar® and Risperdal Consta® were chosen as model products. The calculated L:G ratios of PLGA used in Trelstar® and Risperdal® are 52:48 and 78:22, respectively. PLGAs from both Trelstar® and Risperdal Consta® possess ester end-caps. Since the properties of specific PLGA in clinically used formulations are not readily available, this protocol will be useful in developing PLGA-based long acting drug products.”

PolySciTech Year End In Review: Final Post of 2014.

This is the last post for PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) in 2014 as we will be closing down until January 5th. Notable to the year 2014 have been the 20 publications which came out this year utilizing PolySciTech research products which is the highest number to date. As you enjoy your holiday break and contemplate your research plans for next year please peruse some of the following papers for inspiration. Happy Holidays:

“A Far-Red Light Activatable, Multi-Functional Prodrug for Fluorescence Optical Imaging and Combinational Treatment” (http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jm5000722); “Thermosensitive poly-(d, l-lactide-co-glycolide)-block-poly (ethylene glycol)-block-poly-(d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) hydrogels for multi-drug delivery” (http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/1061186X.2014.931406); “Fabrication of MnFe< sub> 2 O< sub> 4-CuInS< sub> 2/ZnS Magnetofluorescent Nanocomposites and Their Characterization” (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0927775714007870); “Conjugation of Anti-HER2 Monoclonal Antibody onto a PLGA-PEG Nanoparticle Using CuAAC Click Chemistry” (http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=ucin1352485398); “Targeted Approach for Prostate Cancer Treatment: Synthesis and Characterization of Docetaxel-Loaded Perfluorocarbon Nanodroplets.” (http://www.annexpublishers.com/articles/JCSCO/volume-1-Issue-1/Targeted-Approach-for-Prostate-Cancer-Treatment-Synthesis-and-Characterization-of-Docetaxel-Loaded-Perfluorocarbon-Nanodroplets.pdf); “In vivo siRNA delivery system for targeting to the liver by poly-l-glutamic acid-coated lipoplex” (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211286314000025); “Triamcinolone acetonide nanoparticles incorporated in thermoreversible gels for age-related macular degeneration” (http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/10837450.2014.965326); “Resveratrol-loaded polymeric nanoparticles suppress glucose metabolism and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo” (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378517314008643); “Adaptive Functional Diversification of Lysozyme in Insectivorous Bats” (http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/08/18/molbev.msu240.short); “Toxicologie pulmonaire de nanoparticules biod´egradables : effets cytotoxiques et inflammatoires sur cellules ´epith´eliales et macrophages” (https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/01/01/66/97/PDF/VD2_GRABOWSKI_NADEGE_13122013.pdf); “A new nanostructured carrier design including oil to enhance the pharmaceutical properties of retinoid therapy and its therapeutic effects on chemo-resistant ovarian cancer” (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0939641114001313); “Development of poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles-embedded hyaluronic acid–ceramide-based nanostructure for tumor-targeted drug delivery” (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378517314005377); “Haloperidol-loaded intranasally administered lectin functionalized poly (ethylene glycol)–block-poly (d, l)-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PEG–PLGA) nanoparticles for the treatment of schizophrenia” (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0939641114000526); “Porous PLGA-CaSiO3 (Pseudowollastonite) Composite Scaffolds Optimized for Biocompatibility and Osteoinduction” (https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file?accession=akron1397041385&disposition=inline); “Using Multi-Detection GPC/SEC to Determine Impact of Sterilization on Medical-Grade Polymers” (http://www.chromatographyonline.com/lcgc/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=845744&sk=&date=&pageID=2); “Nanobody-Targeted and RNase-Loaded Nanoparticles Based on a Hydrophilic Polyester Aimed for Cancer Therapy” (http://dspace.library.uu.nl/bitstream/handle/1874/292552/samadi.pdf?sequence=2#page=117); “Nanoencapsulation of ABT-737 and camptothecin enhances their clinical potential through synergistic antitumor effects and reduction of systemic toxicity” (http://www.nature.com/cddis/journal/v5/n10/abs/cddis2014413a.html); “Evaluation of Structure-Property Relationships within Insect Cuticle to Identify Motifs for Biomaterial Design” (http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/bitstream/handle/1808/15781/Sprouse_ku_0099D_13409_DATA_1.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y); “Electrophoretic Deposition and Characterization of Biocomposites on Magnesium for Orthopedic Applications” (http://www.scientific.net/AMR.922.761); “Development of Injectable Citrate-Based Bioadhesive Bone Implants” (http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2014/tb/c4tb01498g).

PolySciTech at 2014 CRS meeting

PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) will be exhibiting at this years controlled release society (CRS) annual meeting (http://www.controlledreleasesociety.org/meetings/annual/Pages/default.aspx) at booth #707. Come on over and check us out to learn more about our polymers and other offerings. We will be handing out free T-shirts to students (while supplies last).

T-shirts PST

PolySciTech “Made in Indiana” manufacturer of the week

PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) has been named “Made in Indiana” manufacturer of the week (http://www.mep.purdue.edu/made/products.aspx?company=249). Additionally PST provides a wide array of PLGA-PEG copolymers. These types of copolymers have been the focus of a recent review article with respect to their drug delivery properties. Read more:  Tang, Xing, Zhang Keru, Juan Zhang, Wei Lu, Xia Lin, Yu Zhang, Bin Tian, Hua Yang, and Haibing He. “PEG-PLGA copolymers: their structure and structure-influenced drug delivery applications.” Journal of Controlled Release (2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2014.03.026

“Abstract: In the paper, we begin by describing polyethylene glycol–poly lactic acid-co-glycolic acid (PEG–PLGA) which was chosen as a typical model copolymer for the construction of nano-sized drug delivery systems and also the types of PEG–PLGA copolymers that were eluted. Following this we examine the structure-influenced drug delivery applications including nanoparticles, micelles and hydrogels. After that, the preparation methods for nano-sized delivery systems are presented. In addition, the drug loading mode of PEG–PLGA micelles is divided into three aspects. Finally, the drug release profiles of PEG–PLGA micelles, both in terms of their in vitro and in vivo characteristics, are represented. PEG–PLGA copolymers are very suitable for the construction of micelles as carriers for insoluble drugs. This article reviews the structure and the different structure-influenced applications of PEG–PLGA copolymers, concentrating on the application of PEG–PLGA micelles. Keywords PEG–PLGA copolymers; Structure types; Drug delivery applications; Drug loading; Drug release; Target delivery”

Tang, 2014

PLGA for purification of stem cells from fat tissue

PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) provides a wide variety of PLGA copolymers which can be seen broken down by endcap, MW, and ratio here (https://akinainc.com/polyscitech/products/polyvivo/polyesters.php). Recently PLGA has een utilized along with silk to form a mesh capable of aiding in the purification of human adipose-derived stem cells allowing for rapid collection of autologous stem cells from patient’s fat tissue.  Read more: Chen, Da-Chung, Li-Yu Chen, Qing-Dong Ling, Meng-Hsueh Wu, Ching-Tang Wang, S. Suresh Kumar, Yung Chang et al. “Purification of human adipose-derived stem cells from fat tissues using PLGA/silk screen hybrid membranes.”Biomaterials (2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2014.02.004

“Abstract:  The purification of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) from human adipose tissue cells (stromal vascular fraction) was investigated using membrane filtration through poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid)/silk screen hybrid membranes. Membrane filtration methods are attractive in regenerative medicine because they reduce the time required to purify hADSCs (i.e., less than 30 min) compared with conventional culture methods, which require 5–12 days. hADSCs expressing the mesenchymal stem cell markers CD44, CD73, and CD90 were concentrated in the permeation solution from the hybrid membranes. Expression of the surface markers CD44, CD73, and CD99 on the cells in the permeation solution from the hybrid membranes, which were obtained using 18 mL of feed solution containing 50 × 104 cells, was statistically significantly higher than that of the primary adipose tissue cells, indicating that the hADSCs can be purified in the permeation solution by the membrane filtration method. Cells expressing the stem cell-associated marker CD34 could be successfully isolated in the permeation solution, whereas CD34+ cells could not be purified by the conventional culture method. The hADSCs in the permeation solution demonstrated a superior capacity for osteogenic differentiation based on their alkali phosphatase activity, their osterix gene expression, and the results of mineralization analysis by Alizarin Red S and von Kossa staining compared with the cells from the suspension of human adipose tissue. These results suggest that the hADSCs capable of osteogenic differentiation preferentially permeate through the hybrid membranes.”

AV11 used to stain nanoparticles

This is a great way to use our AV series, which could be helpful in your research! You can purchase the PolySciTech AV series and other polymers at our website:

https://akinainc.com/polyscitech/products/polyvivo/sequential.php

“Toxicity of surface-modified plga nanoparticles towards
lung alveolar epithelial cells”

Abstract
In vitro cytotoxicity and inflammatory response following exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) made of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) have been investigated on A549 human lung epithelial cells. Three different PLGA NPs (230 nm) were obtained using different stabilizers (polyvinyl alcohol, chitosan, or Pluronic® F68) to form respectively neutral, positively or negatively charged NPs. Polystyrene NPs were used as polymeric but non-biodegradable NPs, and titanium dioxide (anatase and rutile) as inorganic NPs, for comparison. Cytotoxicity was evaluated through mitochondrial activity as well as membrane integrity (lactate dehydrogenase release, trypan blue exclusion, propidium iodide staining). The cytotoxicity of PLGA-based and polystyrene NPs was lower or equivalent to the one observed after exposure to titanium dioxide NPs. The inflammatory response, evaluated through the release of the IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, TNF-α cytokines, was low for all NPs. However, some differences were observed, especially for negative PLGA NPs that led to a higher inflammatory response, which can be correlated to a higher uptake of these NPs. Taken together, these results show that both coating of PLGA NPs and the nature of the core play a key role in cell response.

 

Grabowski, N., Hillaireau, H., Vergnaud, J., Aragao,
L.S., Kerdine-Romer, S., Pallardy, M., Tsapis, N., Fattal, E., TOXICITY
OF SURFACE-MODIFIED PLGA NANOPARTICLES TOWARDS LUNG
ALVEOLAR EPITHELIAL CELLS, International Journal of Pharmaceutics
(2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2013.05.025

“Hydrogel Implants Slip Past Immune Defenses”

Biomaterials: Coating could prevent implant rejection

By Celia Henry Arnaud

“The human body almost immediately recognizes surgically implanted objects as foreign and rushes to surround them with a dense layer of collagen. That so-called foreign-body response is part of an immune-system reaction to a strange object. However, it interferes with medical implants such as drug pumps.

Coating implants with some novel hydrogels may help. The hydrogels are zwitterionic—carrying both positive and negative charges—and are based on carboxybetaine. When Shaoyi Jiang, Buddy D. Ratner, and coworkers at the University of Washington, Seattle, put these hydrogels in mice, the implants resisted the foreign-body reaction for at least three months (Nat. Biotechnol. 2013, DOI: 10.1038/nbt.2580).”

To see the rest of the article please refer to Chemical and Engineering News, Volume 91 Issue 20 | p. 9 | News of The Week
Issue Date: May 20, 2013 | Web Date: May 17, 2013